Health and Fitness

Common Causes of Infertility in Male and Female

Generally, most normal, healthy couples conceive in no more than four months. But when a couple is not able to conceive even after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse, it is called infertility.  

The symptoms of infertility vary greatly depending on gender. There may be few or no symptoms in men, so the only way for a man to determine if he is fertile or not is to have a semen analysis. The Fertility center in Begumpet provides semen analysis tests where the doctors check the sperm count, motility, and morphology levels. 

On the contrary, there are many possible reasons why that ‘symptoms’ are hard to nail down for an infertile woman. The number one thing that should be a red flag is, how regular are her periods? Does she have periods at all? Maybe only a few times a year? In that case, she’s probably not ovulating. 

If she has a blockage, there probably will not be any symptoms at all. 

If she has extreme pain during periods, then she may probably have endometriosis. Or if she is overweight with excess hair growth on her chin and has irregular cycles, then she may have Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

Common Causes of Infertility in Male and Female

Both male and female factors can be responsible for the inability to conceive, and one out of every six couples is a victim of this dire situation. Some of the common causes of infertility are mentioned below. 

Causes of Female Infertility:

  • Damaged Fallopian Tubes: The blockage in the fallopian tubes prevents the transfer of eggs from ovaries to the uterus & hampers the fertilization of the egg with sperms. These tubes are damaged because of the formation of scar tissues caused by pelvic infections, endometriosis, and pelvic surgery, resulting in infertility. 
  • Ovulation Disorders: The hormonal imbalances in the body cause ovulation disorders that result in the problem of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is when multiple cysts are developed in the female’s ovaries, leading to infertility. 
  • Endometriosis: Endometriosis is when an abnormal growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity causes severe pain in the pelvis area. 
  • Uterine abnormalities: The formation of fibroids & polyps in a woman’s body disrupt a female’s fertility. Fibroids are non-cancerous growth that occurs in the uterus, causing hindrance for the embryo to travel to get attached to the uterine wall. Similarly, polyps are those abnormal tissues that grow in the endometrium’s uterine lining, hence causing infertility. 
  • Unexplained Infertility: There are 20% of cases where the exact reason for infertility is not defined; this is referred to as the situation of “unexplained infertility.” 

Risk Factors Linked to Female Infertility:

It has been demonstrated that infertility has identifiable risk factors; most of them are modifiable factors. They include: 

  • Age: one-third of women above 35 years have fertility problems 
  • Tobacco: Infertility rates in female smokers are about two times higher than that of non-smokers. 
  • Excessive alcohol use: drinking alcohol around the ovulation period decreases the chance of getting pregnant. 
  • Obesity: when your Body Mass Index (BMI) is 30 or higher, it is called obesity. The higher the BMI, the higher the chances of infertility. It is important to check and control your BMI.
  • Stress: Physical or emotional stress are important factors that affect fertility. Practising relaxation techniques like meditation and other breathing exercises can help control stress.

Causes of Male Infertility:

  • Abnormal Sperm Production: Inability to produce sufficient sperms leads to male infertility. There are basically two situations, Azoospermia where there is no sperm produced, and Oligospermia, where fewer sperms are produced.
  • Issues in Ejaculation: Sometimes, reverse ejaculation occurs where the semen is ejaculated backwards in the bladder instead of the penis. These situations can be caused due to various reasons such as diabetes, spinal injuries, certain heavy medications, and surgeries in the bladder, prostate, or urethra.
  • Hormonal Imbalances: Disparity in the hormones may cause a problem in the organs like adrenal glands, thyroid, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Low testosterone is also a major underlying cause.
  • Other factors: Excessive intake of alcohol, smoke, and other drugs such as marijuana and other such heavy medications can hamper a man’s fertility. Also, frequent contact with the heat, such as saunas or hot tubs that raise body temperatures, can affect sperm production. 

Risk factors linked to male infertility

  • Unhealthy lifestyle: Smoking, drinking alcohol, and unhealthy eating habits are highly contributing factors to male infertility. The rate of infertility is higher in smokers than in non-smokers. 
  • Infections: History of infections like sexually transmitted diseases are major risk factors for male infertility. 
  • Exposure to radiations: Exposure to radiations, toxins, and medications can lead to infertility in men.
  • Anatomical problems: such as male sexual organs trauma, surgery, or genetic problems, can cause infertility.
  • Diseases: such as tumors, diabetes mellitus, Sickle cell, etc., and many others are also major risk factors.


There are main reasons that can make a couple infertile. However, with the advancement of Medical Sciences, several procedures can be performed to treat infertility. If you suspect you or your partner may be infertile, the first thing to do is to chart your cycles (or hers) and get some information about what’s going on in your bodies. That might help you with some information to give to your doctor. Rush to the best IVF centre in Begumpet and start the treatment as quickly as possible.

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